Glossary of Childhood Cancer

Category of Childhood Cancer

Affects

Includes

Leukemia

Blood. It is a cancer of the blood-forming cells

 ALL: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (76%)

  AML: Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (also called acute myelogenous leukemia) (19%)

Central nervous system

Brain, spinal cord

  Gliomas (cancer of brain, spinal cord, certain glands)

  Ependymoma (cancer of lining of spinal cord and brain)

   Astrocytoma (cancer of connecting cells in nerves)

Lymphoma

Lymphatic tissues (involved in fighting disease and part of the immune system)

   Hodgkins disease

   Non-hodgkins lymphoma

Germ cell tumors

Develop in tissues derived from the embryo, particularly ova or sperm

Found in testicles, ovaries

    Gonadal germ cell

     Gonadal carcinomas

    Intracranial and intraspinal germ cell

   Other non-gonadal germ cell

Soft tissue sarcomas

Muscle, fat, blood vessels

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Malignant bone tumors

Bones

Increases with growth rate of bones

      Ewings sarcoma (30%)

      Osteosarcoma (60%)

      Chondosarcoma

Carcinomas and other malignant epithelial neoplasms

Variety of tissues and forms

      Thyroid carcinoma

      Malignant melanoma

      Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Sympathetic nervous system

Nerves that lead from the brain and provide signals to organs including the lungs, heart, and kidney

Neuroblastoma (96%)

Renal

Kidney

   Wilms tumor (90%)

   Nephroblastoma

Retinoblastoma

Eye (retina)

Early childhood only